Quotations Menu Comments


Required - When quoting another work within the paper include author, year, and page citation or paragraph number (Chapter 15, 15.3, p. 138-139).

In-Text Quotations - An in-text quotation should integrate effectively into the sentence and/or paragraph structure of your paper and should appear within double quotation marks (Chapter 25, 25.2, p. 347).

Less than Five Lines - If a quote is less than or equal to four lines in your paper then integrate it into the text using quotation marks (Turabian Chapter 7, 7.5, p. 75-76; Chapter 25, 25.2.1, p. 347).

More than Four Lines - When a quote is more than four lines it should be in block-quotation format (each line set apart from the normal text of the paper by an extra indent) (Turabian Chapter 7, 7.5, p. 75-76; Chapter 25, 25.2.2, p. 349).

Punctuation & Interesting Cases

Inside Punctuation - For quotes less than five lines the citation should appear after the quotation mark and before the punctuation (Turabian Chapter 25,, p. 348).

After Punctuation - For block quotes cite the source (surname and p. # or the superscript Arabic numeral) in parentheses following the quote punctuation (Turabian Chapter 25, 25.2.2, p. 350).

Quote Changes - All direct quotations must be quoted exactly as written in original source, with the exception of changing the case of the first letter of the first word quoted to a capital letter or if there is a minor typographical error in the original source. All other changes or omissions from the exact original source when quoting must be indicated, except when there is a citation within the original material you are quoting, in which case you may omit the citation unless doing so would alter the meaning of the quote (Turabian Chapter 25, 25.3, p. 351).

Quotation within a Quote - Double quotation marks are used when something is quoted within a quote. The outer-most quotation is indicated by double quote marks and a quote within the quote is indicated by single quote marks (i.e. ' ') (Turabian Chapter25,, p. 349).


Integrate Quote - Integrate this quote into the sentence so that it makes sense and is grammatically correct.

Intro Phrase Comma - A phrase that introduces a quote should be followed by a comma.

Intro Clause Colon - A clause that introduces a quote should be followed by a colon.

No Preceding Punctuation - This quotation does not need any preceding punctuation.