Citations Menu Comments


Citations Parenthetical - A common parenthetical citation includes the author surname and the year of publication, followed by page numbers (e.g., (Martin 2000, 22-23)) (Chapter 15, 15.3.2, p. 139).

Citation Within Text - When citing a single work by a single author with the author named within the text, the year of the work should immediately follow author name (e.g., Martin (2004, 22-23)) In-text citations of an author group should be treated the same in citation as a single author (Chapter 18, 18.3.1, p. 226) and (Chapter 25,, p. 348-349).

First Names Rare - Only include the authors' surname in a citation unless further identification of the author is necessary for clarity (Chapter 18,, p. 227).

Three or More Authors 

Three Authors - For a single work by three authors, cite all authors every time (Turabian Chapter 18, see Figure 18.1, p. 218).

Four or More - For four or more authors, cite the primary author followed by 'et al.' for the first and all following mentions of the work (Turabian Chapter 18, see Figure 18.1, p. 219).

Inside Punctuation & Alphabetical

Cite Inside Punctuation - Be sure to include the citation within the sentence that is being cited, i.e., before the end of sentence punctuation (., ?, or !) (Chapter 18, 18.3.1, p. 226) and (Chapter 25,, p. 348).

Alphabetical by Surname - Two or more separate citations in the same parentheses should be ordered alphabetically by the first author's surname, chronologically, or by importance separated by semicolons (Chapter 18,, p. 227).

Same Surname

Same Surname - Authors with the same surname should also have their initials included in every in-text citation (Chapter 18,, p. 227).


Citation Needed - Citation needed.

Citation Mismatch - This citation does not have a corresponding entry on the reference page. This may be due to oversight or you may have not included all of the authors in the citation or reference listing.

Unknown Author

Unknown Author - For a work that has an unknown author cite the title and year of the work (Chapter 17,, p. 168-169).