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Notes-Bibliography Style

Required - In a notes-bibliography style paper, a superscript number should be placed at the end of the sentence when something is directly quoted or paraphrased and when any idea or method from another source is used (Chapter 15, 15.3.1, p. 138) and (Chapter 15, 15.2.1, p. 136).

In Text (Notes) - When using bibliography style for citing in the text of the paper, a superscript number that corresponds to the numbered footnote (at the bottom of the page) or endnote (at the end of the paper) should immediately follow the sentence or subject (Turabian Chapter 15, 15.3.1, p. 138).


Too Many Notes - Do not create so many footnotes and endnotes that it is exhausting or distracting to the reader and takes away from the main content of the paper (Turabian Chapter 7, 7.6, p. 77).

Frequent Notes - If you cite very frequently throughout your paper or your notes are going to be very lengthy, it is best to cite the notes in an endnote at the end of the paper so as not to distract the reader. If the citations in your paper are used sparingly and the notes contain significant sources, include them in a footnote (Turabian Chapter 16, 16.3.1, p. 155).

Several Sources - When several sources are cited in text together in one or a few sentences, rather than place several superscript numbers together in the text, signify the entire passage by one superscript number. Then in the note where the corresponding number appears list all of the citations in the passage in the order that they were cited in text. Separate one citation from another with semicolons (Turabian Chapter 16, 16.3.5, p. 157).


Indent - Note citations should be indented in paragraph format (Turabian Chapter 16, 16.1.7, p. 150).

Commas - When writing citations in endnotes or footnotes, the different parts of the citation need to be separated by commas (Turabian Chapter 16, 16.1.2, p. 149).

Number Consecutively - The superscript in text and number in the note should always match each other and should be consecutively numbered (first source is 1, second source in text is 2)  (Turabian Chapter 16, 16.3.3, p. 156).

Parenthetical and Footnotes

Parenthetical - If the course instructor permits, parenthetical citations can be used in text in a bibliography-style paper instead of a superscript if the source is a religious text, a newspaper article, a visual artistic piece, etc., or if the paper consists of only a few sources repeatedly referenced throughout the paper. When citing parenthetically, make sure the sentence or parentheses includes the author name and shortened source title, and always include a page number in parentheses (Turabian, Chapter 16, 16.4.3, p. 161-163).

Footnotes - Footnotes are used to strengthen the text and should not be overly elaborate or express any unnecessary information. A footnote should relay one simple thought not several complex thoughts.