Citations Menu Comments


Citations Parenthetical - When paraphrasing a work by a single author, cite the author’s name and the referenced page numbers in parentheses at the end of the sentence. For example: The main character grows in respect to his attitudes about learning… (Smith 11). (MLA Chapter 6, 6.3, 216-19).

Citation Within Text - When citing an author’s name in text before paraphrasing or quoting a single work, place the inclusive page numbers in parenthesis before the punctuation at the end of the sentence being paraphrased or quoted. For example: Smith carried the memory of his daughter with him as he journeyed home (111-26). Or cite the page number after the names have been written in the sentence. For example: Smith (111-26) carried the memory of his daughter with him as he journeyed home (MLA Chapter 6, 6.3, 216-19).

General Rule - When using in-text citations, it is always good to make sure that the citation matches the format in the work cited. If a citation in the work cited omits the author name and is listed by title, the in-text citation should also omit the author name and be listed by title. (MLA Chapter 6, 6.4.4, 223-24).

Multiple Works - When citing multiple works in one parenthetical citation, cite each work and separate them with semicolons. For example (Kennedy 12; Volk 112-13; Randall 54) (MLA Chapter 6, 6.4.9, 229-30).

Same Paragraph - When a paragraph is discussing a single work the author does not need to be repeatedly cited after each sentence. The page number should be cited every time a different page has been paraphrased, quoted, or referenced in the text but as long as it is clear to the reader that the same work is being discussed omit exhausting citations of the author’s name (MLA Chapter 6, 6.3, 216-19).


Cite Inside Punctuation - Be sure to include the citation within the sentence that is being cited, i.e., before the end of sentence punctuation (., ?, or !).

qtd. in - When citing a source that is not the original source, such as a quote or idea that someone other than the author has published and cited, the citation should indicate ꞌꞌqtd. inꞌꞌ so the reader knows it is a secondary source. For example (qtd. in Kennedy 112) should appear at the end of the sentence (MLA Chapter 6, 6.4.7, 226).

Same Surname - Authors with the same surname should also have their initials included in every in-text citation.

Volume - When citing a source in text that is part of a multi-volume work, include the volume number after the author’s name, separated by a comma in the citation. For example: (Kennedy, vol. 9) (MLA Chapter 6, 6.4.3, 222-23).

Unknown Author - For a work that has an unknown author or a reference that is legal material, cite in text the short form of the title and the year of publication (MLA Chapter 5, 5.4.9, 145).


First Name - When citing a name the first time in text, write out the full name exactly as it appears in the original source. Every subsequent time the name is used cite the last name only (MLA Chapter 3, 3.4.1, 79-80).

Formal Name - Do not use Ms. or Mrs. or other formal titles when referring to an individual in text, only use the full name as it appears in the source (MLA, Chapter 3, 3.4.2, 80).

Informal Name - When referring to an author or fictional character informal names that are well-known and commonly used are acceptable to use throughout the text (MLA, Chapter 3, 3.4.3, 81).


Citation Needed - Citation needed.

Citation Mismatch - This citation does not have a corresponding entry on the reference page. This may be due to oversight or you may not have included all of the authors in the citation or works cited.

Titles and Scripture

Title of Work - When citing the title of a source within text, write the title out as it is presented on the title page of the source (capitalizing the first word, the last word, and principle words within the title). Do not add any punctuation to the title that is not already there with the exception of a colon to separate the title and subtitle (MLA Chapter 3, 3.6.1, 86-7).

Shortened Title - If a title is cited several times within the text then it is acceptable to use a shortened version of the title for all subsequent uses (MLA Chapter 3, 3.6.6, 92).

Italicized Title - Titles should be italicized in text when the title is one of the following: a play, web site, dance, opera, book, newspaper, magazine, or piece of art (MLA Chapter 3, 3.6.2, 88).

Title in Quotes - Titles should be in quotation marks when the title is a piece of a larger work such as a journal article, magazine article, story, poem, lecture, television episode, etc.)(MLA Chapter 3, 3.6.3, 89).

Scripture - Italics and Quotations are not used when scripture writings are cited in text (MLA Chapter 3, 3.6.5, 91).


Footnotes Concise - Footnotes are used to strengthen a paper. They should be concise and contain only necessary information (MLA Chapter 6.5, 6.5, 230-31).

Footnote One Thought - A footnote should convey one specific, basic thought, not several complex thoughts (MLA Chapter 6.5, 6.5, 230-31).

Footnote Labels - Footnotes should be labeled by Arabic numerals that match the Arabic numerals in the text (MLA Chapter 6.5, 6.5, p. 230-31).