Quotations Menu Comments


Required - When quoting another work within the paper include author, year, and page citation or paragraph number.

Page Number Missing - Page number is missing.

Author Quotes - Author is missing.

Page-Paragraph Unavailable - In the instance that you are using an online source(s) that does not provide page or paragraph numbers then the heading in quotes followed by the paragraph number should be included after the author and year (e.g., '(Atwood, 2009, 'This is the Heading,' para. 3).')(Chapter 6, 6.05, p. 172).


Fewer than 40 - A quote fewer than 40 words should be implemented into the text with double quotation marks (Chapter 6, p. 171).

40 or More - A quote that contains 40 or more words should be displayed as a block (left justified) quotation. Start the quote on its own line, indent the entire quote a half-inch from the left margin, and cite the source (Surname, year, p. #) in parentheses following the quote punctuation (Chapter 6, pp. 170-172).


Inside Punctuation - For quotes less than 40 words the citation should appear after the quotation mark and before the punctuation (Chapter 6, p. 171).

After Punctuation - For block quotes cite the source (Surname, year, p. #) in parentheses following the quote punctuation (Chapter 6, pp. 170-172).

 Interesting Cases

Quote Changes - All direct quotations must be quoted exactly as written in original source with the exception of changing the case of the first letter of the first word quoted to a capital letter (6.06 and 6.07). All other changes or omissions from the exact original source when quoting must be indicated (6.08). If there is a citation within the original material that you are quoting do not omit the citation from the quote (6.09) (Chapter 6, pp. 172-174).

Quotation within a Quote - Double quotation marks are used when something is quoted within a quote. The outer-most quotation is indicated by double quote marks and a quote within the quote is indicated by single quote marks (i.e. ' ') (Chapter 4, 4.08, p. 92).