Citations Menu Comments


Citations Parenthetical - A common parenthetical citation includes the author surname, followed by the year of publication (e.g., (Martin, 2000)). With a work that has two authors always cite both names every time (Chapter 6, 6.13, pp. 174-176).

Citation Within Text - When citing a single work by a single author with the author named within the text, the year of the work should immediately follow author name in parentheses (e.g., Martin (2004)). An exception is made when the name is used several times consecutively in a paragraph in which case only the first time the author is mentioned in paragraph is the year necessary (6.11). In text citations of an author group are treated the same as a citation of a single author (6.13) (Chapter 6, pp. 174-176).


First Names Rare - Only include the author's surname in a citation unless further identification of the author is necessary for clarity (Chapter 6, pp. 174-176).

Two Authors - For a single work by two authors, cite both authors every time (Chapter 6, 6.12, p. 175).

Three to Five Authors - For three to five authors, cite all of the authors the first time the work is mentioned and the primary author followed by 'et al.' for all successive times the work is mentioned. (Chapter 6, 6.12, p. 175).

Six or More - For six or more authors, cite the primary author followed by 'et al.' for the first and all following mentions of the work (Chapter 6, 6.12, p. 175).


And-Ampersand - Use 'and' to separate author names when mentioned in the text (e.g. . . . but Martin and Smith (2006) . . .), but use an ampersand when multiple authors are in a parenthetical citation (Chapter 6, 6.11-6.13, pp. 174-176).

Cite Inside Punctuation - Be sure to include the citation within the sentence that is being cited, i.e., before the end of sentence punctuation (., ?, or !) (Chapter 6, pp. 174-176).

Alphabetical by Surname - Two or more separate citations in the same parentheses should be ordered alphabetically by the first author's surnames (i.e., same order as in the reference list) separated by semicolon(s) (Chapter 6, 6.16, pp. 177-178).

Same Paragraph - If you cite the same work a second time in the same paragraph the year does not need to be cited after the name every time it is mentioned in text. It should continue to appear in all parenthetical citations (Chapter 6, 6.11, p. 174).

As Cited In - Secondary sources should be identified with a citation that indicates 'as cited in' within the parenthetical citation (Chapter 6, 6.17, p. 178).

Same Surname - Authors with the same surname should also have their initials included in every in-text citation (Chapter 6, 6.14, p. 176).


Citation Needed - Citation needed.

Citation Mismatch - This citation does not have a corresponding entry on the reference page. This may be due to oversight or you may have not included all of the authors in the citation or reference listing.

Interesting Cases

Classical Works - Classical works should contain the abbreviation 'trans.' followed by year of translation or the word 'version' and the year of the version used. For religious texts, cite the specific passage followed by the translation (e.g., 1 Peter 1:1 (New American Standard)), (Chapter 6, 6.18, pp. 178-179).

Unknown Author - For a work that has an unknown author or a reference that is legal material cite in text the title and the year (Chapter 6, 6.15, p. 176).

Anonymous Author - If the author is listed as being anonymous, use 'Anonymous' as the author name when cited in text (Chapter 6, 6.15, p. 177).