Citations Menu Comments


Citations Parenthetical - A common parenthetical citation includes the author's surname and year of publication; under certain circumstances a page number is also included.

Citation Within Text - When citing a single work by a single work by a single author with the author named within the text, the year of the work (and sometimes the page number) should immediately follow author name in parentheses. The author's name is not needed in the parenthetical citation.


Cite Inside Punctuation - Be sure to include the citation within the sentence that is being cited, i.e., before the end of sentence punctuation (., ?, or !)

As Cited In - Secondary sources should be identified with a citation that indicates 'as cited in,' 'quoted in,' or 'qtd. in' within the parenthetical citation.

Same Surname - Authors with the same surname should also have their initials included in every in-text citation.


Citation Needed - Citation needed.

Citation Mismatch - This citation does not have a corresponding entry on the reference page. This may be due to oversight or you may not have included all of the authors in the citation or reference listing.

Unknown Author

Unknown Author - For a work that has an unknown author or a reference that is legal material, cite in text the short form of the title and the year of publication.


Footnotes - Footnotes are used to strengthen the text and should not be overly elaborate or express any unnecessary information. A footnote should relay one simple thought, not several complex thoughts. When a footnote is numbered it is typically relaying information about sources within the text.